I won’t speculate as to why men are most aroused by smells of food [refer: Hirsch’s 1997 study, also cited in Turner, J. (2004) Spice, pp 256-257] or why chicken soup seems to do as much for broken spirits as illness, but I suspect it is all related to smell memory.
We are exposed to different smells every time we cook and eat – in everything we do, really – and these can affect us in different ways. I am sure you will have heard of aromatherapy, that branch of alternative medicine that uses plant oils and essences to alter mood and health. Aside from the therapeutic benefits we can derive from plant aromas, we may also be able to use our olfaction (sense of smell) to aid memory recall. There is significant evidence to suggest that memory is more closely linked with smell than our other senses, and memories can be triggered by food aromas many years after an event has passed.
I seem to remember that, years ago, one of my law-student friends had a lecturer who styled his unit workbook as a cookbook, recommending recipes and scents for his students to prepare while studying. The aim was to give his students simple triggers, such as a sprig of rosemary, to aid memory recall during the exam [was a roast leg of lamb linked to torts? I forget]. Cool trick, but did it work? My friend passed this unit – and he also passed his other law units, so I am sure his many hours of study paid off.
recall can be enhanced if learning was done in the presence of odor, and that same odor was present at the time of recall. Although the accuracy of the memory is not affected by the type of sensory cue (olfactory or auditory), the intensity and vividness of the memory are increased when the cue is olfactory.
The impacts of odour on author-philosopher Marcel Proust’s memory are famously documented, particularly in his work Remembrance of Things Past. It is this book that inspired neurologists to refer to the involuntary recall of memory evoked by smell as the ‘Proust Effect’. Katrina Alloway’s blog includes even more discussion around the Proust Effect – and a recipe for madeleines to boot.
John Lehrer’s Proust was a Neuroscientist connects the childhood recollections of Proust to modern understandings of memory function, including the link to smell. [Aside: the book also discussed the father of modern French cuisine, Escoffier, in terms of food science and tastebud manipulation.]
Lehrer explains that, because of the way that smell is processed in the brain, we constantly relate new aromas with past scentual experiences. In this way, our sense of smell provides us with hooks to other memories and feelings. [Incidentally, the value of this link has not been lost on big business: companies such as ScentAir are being created to specialise in ‘sensory branding’. Smell-O-Vision, anyone?]
Over my life, I have noticed that certain smells transport me to particular events, meals and feelings. I also regularly seek out foods and aromas for comfort (like tom yum soup), rest (chamomile, lemon balm, lavender) and mental stimulation (eg. rosemary & peppermint oils). With my recent reading in mind, I aim to understand and intend the aromatic effects from my foodly exploits.
There is a plethora of research regarding the interrelationship between smell and memory; I know I have only scratched the surface, and it has whetted my appetite for more. I hope my early learnings have also been interesting and useful for you.
Next time you have an exam or a big presentation to prepare for, I challenge you to incorporate some culinary scents into your preparation and see if it works. It certainly can’t hurt. I am really keen to find out if this makes a difference for you.